2009/ Oil O3 on cutaneous wound healing (guinea pigs)
This study evaluates the therapeutic effects of topical ozonated olive oil on acute cutaneous wound healing and elucidates its therapeutic mechanism. The study demonstrates than topical application of ozonated olive oil can accelerate acute cutaneous wound repair in a guinea pig, in association with the increased expression of PDGF, TGF-β, and VEGF.
Introduction. The beneficial effects of O3 on wound healing might be assumed to be due to decreased bacterial infection, ameliorated impaired dermal wound healing, or increased oxygen tension by O3 exposure in the wound area. We hypothesized that O3 might enhance acute cutaneous wound healing, and this could be associated with growth factors such as FGF, PDGF, TGF-βand VEGF. Nowadays, O3 is profitably and practically employed as ozonated olive oil. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of topical ozonated olive oil on acute cutaneous wound healing in a guinea pig model, and to elucidate its therapeutic mechanisms, that are associated with such growth factors as FGF, PDGF, TGF-β, and VEGF.
Materials and methods. Sixteen female guinea pigs were used in the study; two wounds were created on both sides of their backs, for a total of four circular wounds per animal. Two drops of ozonated olive oil were applied everyday to two sites of the four wounds (ozone group), olive oil as a pure base was applied to a third wound (oil group), and as control group, nothing was applied on the fourth wound. The wounds were then dressed without dryness.
Results. There was an enhanced wound closure and proliferation of fibroblasts and collagen fibers noted in the ozone group of wounds. On day 7, the ozone group revealed an increased staining intensity of collagen fibers at the wound bed and at the edge of the entire dermis in comparison to the oil and control groups. There was a significant difference in the number of fibroblasts between the ozone group and the oil group on day 7.
Ozone group showed a relatively increased expression of TGF-β, as compared to the oil group. Ozone group revealed a relatively increased VEGF expression in both the dermis and the epidermis, as compared to the oil group. Ozone group revealed relatively higher expressions of PDGF, TGF-β, and VEGF, but not of FGF, than the oil group, on day 7.
Discussion. O3 could enhance acute cutaneous wound healing, especially on day 7. This implies that topical exposure of O3 may affect granulation tissue formation of the wound healing process, rather than affecting immediate formation of blood clot and recruitment of inflammatory cells during the inflammation phase. O3 may act on acute wound healing directly or indirectly via collagen synthesis and fibroblast proliferation during granulation and early tissue remodeling phase. O3 might induce expressions of PDGF and TGF-βfrom epidermal keratinocyte as well as from the dermal fibroblast at the injury site.
The relatively increased vascularity in the ozone group might be due to the increased expression of VEGF by ozonation. These may be associated with the generation of H2O2 through ozonation, which can directly induce a VEGF expression and/or indirectly by the induction of heme oxygenase-1. In contrast, there was little difference in the FGF expressions between the ozone group and the oil group on day 7, possibly because it had already been up-regulated within 24 hr after wounding.
In conclusion, application of ozonated OLO can accelerate acute cutaneous wound repair in the guinea pig model by promoting collagen synthesis and fibroblast proliferation at the injury site, and by increasing the expression of growth factors such as PDGF, TGF-β, and VEGF. Topical O3 may be regarded as an alternative therapeutic modality to enhance cutaneous wound healing.